Non Conversion Energy Sources – Solar System Design and Implementation:-

The Ultimate Renewable Resource

The sun is the primary energy source for almost all energy flows on the planet. It's time we started using it.

What is Solar Energy? –

  • Originates with the thermonuclear fusion reactions occurring in the sun.

  • Represents the entire electromagnetic radiation (visible light, infrared, ultraviolet, x-rays,
    and radio waves).

How much solar energy?

The surface receives about 47% of the total solar energy that reaches the Earth. Only this amount is usable.

The sun produces two types of energy:

1) Converts sunlight to electricity 2) Converts sunlight to heat

Solar Water Heating Systems Salient Features

  • A commercially viable technology
  • Can provide hot water at 60-80oC. Integrated with storage tank & electrical back up.
  • Saves electricity or furnace oil
  • Pays back cost in 3 - 4 years.
  • Suitable for homes, hotels, hospitals, hotels, guest houses, institutions, dairies, industry etc.
  • Techno-economic potential: 40 million sq. m. of collector area i.e. 2 billion liters of hot
    water per day

Solar Water Heating Systems Energy Savings

  • A 100 lpd system
    - Replace an electric geyser of 2 kW capacity
    - Saves around 1200 units of electricity in homes or
    - Saves around 140 liters of diesel/ furnace oil in a year in industries & commercial

  • 1 lakh systems installed in a city can result in 100 MW of peak load shaving if 50% of the
    domestic systems are assumed to be in use at a time,

  • 40 million sq. m. potential could lead to peak load shaving of 14,000 MW (70% systems in
    homes) apart from saving of enormous amount of electricity & fossil fuels in homes & other
    establishments besides abating CO2 emissions in atmosphere

Financial Provisions

  • Interest subsidy to provide loans @
    - 2 % to individuals
    - 3% to institutional users
    - 5% to commercial users
    - Capital subsidy equivalent to upfront interest subsidy of Rs. 1750 for institutions & Rs. 1400
    for commercial establishments. For housing complexes @ Rs. 1900/ sq. m. of collector area

Direct Conversion into Electricity

  • Photovoltaic cells directly convert sunlight into electricity.
  • Battery needed as storage
  • No moving parts, do no wear out, but because they are exposed to the weather, their
    lifespan is about 20 years.

Solar PV Power Systems Financial Provisions

  • Interest subsidy to provide loans @
    - 2 % to individuals
    - 3% to institutional users
    - 5% to commercial users
    - Subsidy, which is calculated on the basis of a cost benchmarked by MNRE, is nationally
    equal to 30% of benchmarked cost of solar power systems. For 2011 it is fixed at Rs. 90 per
    Wp with battery storage, and at around Rs. 70 per Wp without battery storage

Major Advantages

  • Long Life (More than 20 years)
  • Low Maintenance
  • High Reliability
  • Modular Nature
  • No Recurring Fuel Requirement
  • No Emission of Pollutants


  • High Initial Capital Cost
  • Need for Storage
  • O & M Issues

Final Thought

  • Argument that sun provides power only during the day is countered by the fact that 70% of energy demand is during daytime hours. At night, traditional methods can be used to
    generate the electricity.
  • Goal is to decrease our dependence on fossil fuels.
  • Currently, our electrical power is generated by coal-burning and nuclear power plants.
  • Mitigates the effects of acid rain, carbon dioxide, and other impacts of burning coal and
    counters risks associated with nuclear energy.
  • Pollution free, indefinitely sustainable.